For a complete and up-to-date list, visit: GoogleScholar


Peer-reviewed journal publications:


N. L. Sponsel, S. Gershman, and K. Stapelmann
“Electrical breakdown dynamics in an argon bubble submerged in conductive liquid for nanosecond pulsed discharges.”
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 56(50):505202,



N. L. Sponsel, S. Gershman, M. J. Herrera Quesada, J. T. Mast, and K. Stapelmann

“Electric discharge initiation in water with gas bubbles: A time scale approach.”

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 40(6):063002,


N. Pillai, N.L. Sponsel, J. Mast, M. J. Kushner, I. A. Bolotnov, and K. Stapelmann

“Plasma breakdown in bubbles passing between two pin electrodes.”

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 55(47):475203,






Hannah L. Wapshott-Stehli, Brayden G. Myers, María J. Herrera Quesada, Amy Grunden, Katharina Stapelmann

“Plasma-driven biocatalysis: In situ hydrogen peroxide production with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet increases the performance of OleTJE when compared to adding the same molar amount of hydrogen peroxide in bolus

Plasma Processes and Polymers, e2100160, 2022,


Naveen Pillai, Nicholas L. Sponsel, Katharina Stapelmann, Igor Bolotnov

“Direct Numerical Simulation of Bubble Formation through a Submerged “Flute” with Experimental Validation” 

Journal of Fluids Engineering, ASME. J. Fluids Eng.


Naman Bhatt, Justin Brier-Jones, Duncan Trosan, Cade Brinkley, Joshua Pecoraro, Jann Smallwood, Andrew Crofton, Samuel Hudson, Wolff Kirsch, Katharina Stapelmann, Steven Shannon

“Depyrogenation using plasmas: A novel approach for endotoxin deactivation using a dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

Plasma Processes and Polymers, 2100089, 2021,


Katharina Stapelmann, Brayden Myers, María Herrera Quesada, Eleanor Lenker, Pietro Ranieri

“Generation and Transport of O and OH in He/O2 and He/H2O gas mixtures – from the gas phase to the liquid phase to a biological sample

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 54, 434003, – invited submission to the Emerging Leader 2021 Special Issue,


Brayden Myers, Ed V. Barnat, Katharina Stapelmann

“Atomic oxygen density determination in the effluent of the COST Reference Source using in situ effective lifetime measurements in the presence of a liquid interface”

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 54, 455202, 2021,




Brayden Myers, Pietro Ranieri, Tatyana Smirnova, Patrick Hewitt, David Peterson, María Herrera Quesada, Eleanor Lenker, and Katharina Stapelmann.

“Measuring plasma-generated• OH and O atoms in liquid using EPR spectroscopy and the non-selectivity of the HTA assay.”

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 54, 145202, 2021,


Hager Mohamed, Eric Gebski, Rufranshell Reyes, Samuel Beane, Brian Wigdahl, Fred C. Krebs, Katharina Stapelmann, and Vandana Miller

“Differential effect of non-thermal plasma RONS on two human leukemic cell populations”

Cancers 13(10), 2437, 2021,



Pietro Ranieri, Nicholas Sponsel, Jon Kizer, Marcela Rojas-Pierce, Ricardo Hernandez, Luciano Gatiboni, Amy Grunden, Katharina Stapelmann

“Plasma Agriculture: Review from the Perspective of the Plant and its Ecosystem”

Plasma Process Polym. 2020;e2000162.


Annemie Bogaerts, Katharina Stapelmann, Abraham Lin

“Advances in Plasma Oncology Toward Clinical Translation”

Cancers 12(11), 2020, 3283,




Friederike Kogelheide, Farina Voigt, Bastian Hillebrand, Ralf Moeller, Felix Fuchs, Andrew R Gibson, Peter Awakowicz, Katharina Stapelmann, Marcel Fiebrandt


“The role of humidity and UV-C emission in the inactivation of B. subtilis spores during atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge treatment”

J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 53, 2020 295201,



Dariusz Smiłowicz, Friederike Kogelheide, Anna Lena Schöne, Katharina Stapelmann, Peter Awakowicz, and Nils Metzler-Nolte

“Catalytic oxidation of small organic molecules by cold plasma in solution in the presence of molecular iron complexes”

Scientific Reports 10:21652, 2020 |


Pietro Ranieri, Hager Mohamed, Brayden Myers, Leah Dobossy, Keely Beyries, Duncan Trosan, Fred C. Krebs, Vandana Miller, Katharina Stapelmann

“GSH modification as a marker for plasma source and biological reponse comparison to plasma treatment”

Applied Sciences 10 (6), 2025, 2020,




Julian Balzer, Erhan Demir, Friederike Kogelheide, Paul C. Fuchs, Katharina Stapelmann, Christian Opländer

“Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) differently affects migration and differentiation of keratinocytes via hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide-related products”,

Clinical Plasma Medicine 13, 1-8, 2019,


Ella A. Naumova, Alexander-Simon Engel, Hagen Tizian Kranz, Marvin Schneider, Jan Tietze, Thomas Dittmar, Marcel Fiebrandt, Katharina Stapelmann, Andree Piwowarczyk, Thorsten Kuczius and Wolfgang H. Arnold

“Low-pressure plasma sterilization for test specimens to be worn on splints in the oral cavity”,

Coatings 9 (99), 2019, doi:10.3390/coatings9020099


Jan-Wilm Lackmann, Giuliana Bruno, Helena Jablonowski, Friederike Kogelheide, Björn Offerhaus, Julian Held, Volker Schulz-von-der-Gathen, Katharina Stapelmann, Thomas von Woedtke, Kristian Wende

“Nitrosylation vs. oxidation – how to modulate cold physical plasmas for biological applications”,

PlosOne 14(5): e0216606, 2019,


Friederike Kogelheide, Björn Offerhaus, Nikita Bibinov, Philip Krajinski, Lars Schücke, Julian Schulze, Katharina Stapelmann and Peter Awakowicz

“Characterisation of volume and surface dielectric barrier discharges in N2/O2 mixtures using optical emission spectroscopy”,

Plasma Processes and Polymers e1900126, DOI:10.1002/ppap.201900126, 2019


Björn Offerhaus, Friederike Kogelheide, Delawar Jalat, Nikita Bibinov, Julian Schulze, Katharina Stapelmann, Peter Awakowicz

“Determination of NO densities in a surface dielectric barrier discharge using optical emission spectroscopy”,

Journal of Applied Physics 126(19), 2019,


Dariusz Smilowicz, Friederike Kogelheide, Katharina Stapelmann, Peter Awakowicz, Nils Metzler-Nolte

“Study on chemical modifications of glutathione by cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) operated in air in the presence of Fe(II) and FE(III) complexes”,

Scientific Reports 9:18024, 2019,


Marcel Fiebrandt, Jan-Wilm Lackmann, Katharina Stapelmann

“From patent to product? 50 years of low-pressure plasma sterilization”, Invited Expert Opinion

Plasma Processes and Polymers 15, e1800139,


M Fiebrandt, B Hillebrand, J-W Lackmann, M Raguse, R Moeller, P Awakowicz, K Stapelmann

Inactivation of B. subtilis Spores by Low Pressure Plasma – Influence of optical filters and photon / particle fluxes on the inactivation efficiency

J. Phys. D: Applied Physics 51, 045401, 2018


J.-W. Lackmann, K. Wende, C. Verlackt, J. Golda, J. Volzke, F. Kogelheide, J. Held, S. Bekeschus, A Bogaerts, V. Schulz-von der Gathen, K. Stapelmann

Chemical fingerprints of cold physical plasmas – an experimental and computational study using cysteine as tracer compound

Scientific Reports 8, 7736, 2018, DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-25937-0


M Yusopov, J-W Lackmann, J Razzokov, K Stapelmann, A Bogaerts

Impact of Plasma Oxidation on Structural Features of Human Epidermal Growth Factor

Plasma Processes and Polymers, DOI:


V Zammuto, F Fuchs, M Fiebrandt, K Stapelmann, N Ulrich, T Maugeri, R Pukall, C Gugliandolo, R Moeller

Comparing spore resistance of Bacillus strains isolated from hydrothermal vents and spacecraft assembly facilities to environmental stressors and decontamination treatments

Astrobiology, 18 (11), 2018, DOI: 10.1089/ast.2017.1715


M Engelhardt, F Kogelheide, K Stapelmann, N Bibinov, P Awakowicz

Micro-plasmoids in self-organized filamentary dielectric barrier discharges

Plasma Processes and Polymers 14(7) 2017, DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600095





M Fiebrandt, J-W Lackmann, M Raguse, R Möller, P Awakowicz, K Stapelmann

“VUV absorption spectroscopy of bacterial spores and DNA components”

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Special Issue Invited Speaker EPS2016), 59 (1), 014010, 2017, DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/59/1/014010


K Stapelmann, M Fiebrandt, M Raguse, J-W Lackmann, M Postema, R Möller, P Awakowicz

“A combined low-pressure hydrogen peroxide evaporation plus hydrogen plasma treatment method for sterilization − Part 1: “Characterization of the Condensation Process and Proof-of-Concept”

Plasma Processes and Polymers, 14(8), 1600198, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600198


J-W Lackmann, M Fiebrandt, M Raguse, K Kartaschew, M Havenith, JE Bandow, R Möller, P Awakowicz, K Stapelmann

“A combined low-pressure hydrogen peroxide evaporation plus hydrogen plasma treatment method for sterilization − Part 2: An intercomparison study of different biological systems”

Plasma Processes and Polymers14(8), 1600199, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600199


B Offerhaus, J-W Lackmann, F Kogelheide, V Bracht, R Smith, N Bibinov, K Stapelmann, P Awakowicz

“Spatially resolved measurements of the physical plasma parameters and the chemical modifications in a twin surface dielectric barrier discharge for gas flow purification”

Plasma Processes and Polymers14(10), 1600255, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600255


F. M. Fuchs, M. Raguse, M. Fiebrandt, K. Madela, P. Awakowicz, M. Laue, K. Stapelmann, R. Möller

“Investigating the Detrimental Effects of Low Pressure Plasma Sterilization on the Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores Using Live Cell Microscopy“

J. Vis. Exp. (129), e56666, 2017, DOI: 10.3791/56666

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C Klinkhammer, CVerlackt, D Smiłowicz, F Kogelheide, A Bogaerts, N Metzler-Nolte, K Stapelmann, M Havenith, and J-W Lackmann

Elucidation of Plasma-induced chemical modifications on Gluthathione and Gluthathione Disulfide

Scientific Reports 7, 13828, 2017, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-13041-8


M Raguse, M Fiebrandt, K Stapelmann, K Madela, M Laue, J-W Lackmann, JE Thwaite, P Setlow, P Awakowicz, R Möller

“Improvement of biological indicators by using standardized Bacillus subtilis spore monolayers for the evaluation of study of enhanced spore decontamination technologies”

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82(7), 2031, 2016, DOI: 10.1128/aem.03934-15


F Kogelheide, K Kartaschew, M Strack, S Baldus, N Metzler-Nolte, M Havenith, P Awakowicz, K Stapelmann, J-W Lackmann

“FTIR spectroscopy of cysteine as a ready-to-use method for the investigation of plasma-induced chemical modifications of macromolecules”

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 49(8), 084004, 2016, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/49/8/084004


J Schirmack, M Fiebrandt, K Stapelmann, D Schulze-Makuch

“Testing the Effects of Low-Temperature Plasma-Sterilization on Mars Analog Soil Samples Intermixed with Deinococcus radiodurans

Life 6(2), 22, 2016, DOI: 10.3390/life6020022


M Raguse, M Fiebrandt, B Denis, K Stapelmann, P Eichenberger, A Driks, P Eaton, P Awakowicz, R Möller

“Understanding of the importance of the spore coat structure and pigmentation in the Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to low pressure plasma sterilization”

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 49(28), 285401, 2016, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/49/28/285401


M Engelhardt, F Kogelheide, K Stapelmann, N Bibinov, P Awakowicz

Micro-plasmoids in self-organized filamentary dielectric barrier discharges

Plasma Processes and Polymers 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600095 (published online)


K Stapelmann, M Fiebrandt, T Styrnoll, S Baldus, N Bibinov, and P Awakowicz

“Implications of electron heating and non-uniformities in a VHF-CCP for sterilization of medical instruments”

Plasma Sources Science and Technology 24(3), 034014, 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0963-0252/24/3/034014


S. Baldus, F. Kogelheide, N. Bibinov, K. Stapelmann, and P. Awakowicz

“Phase resolved analysis of the homogeneity of a diffuse dielectric barrier discharge”

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 48(37), 375202, 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/48/37/375202


K Stapelmann, J-W Lackmann, I Bürger, JE Bandow, and P Awakowicz

“An H2 very high frequency capacitively coupled plasma inactivates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapDH) more efficiently than UV photons and heat combined”

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 47 (8), 085402, 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/47/8/085402


K Stapelmann, M Fiebrandt, M Raguse, P Awakowicz, G Reitz, and R Moeller

“Utilization of low-pressure plasma to inactivate bacterial spores on stainless steel screws”

Astrobiology, 13 (7), 597-606, 2013, DOI: 10.1089/ast.2012.0949


P Awakowicz, S Baldus, K Stapelmann, M Engelhardt, N Bibinov, B Denis

“Optical Emission Spectroscopy as a Tool for Characterization of Technical Plasmas in Medical Applications”

Plasma Medicine 2 (1-3), 151-168, 2012, DOI: 10.1615/plasmamed.2013006849


O Kylián, B Denis, K Stapelmann, A Ruiz, H Rauscher, F Rossi

“Characterization of a Low-pressure Inductively Coupled Plasma Discharge Sustained in Ar/O2/N2 Ternary Mixtures and Evaluation of its Effect on Erosion of Biological Samples”

Plasma Processes and Polymers 8 (12), 1137-1145, 2011, DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201100086


A von Keudell, P Awakowicz, J Benedikt, V Raballand, A Yanguas-Gil, J Opretzka, C Flötgen, R Reuter, L Byelykh, H Halfmann, K Stapelmann, B Denis, J Wunderlich, P Muranyi, F Rossi, O Kylián, N Hasiwa, A Ruiz, H Rauscher, L Sirghi, E Comoy, C Dehen, L Challier, J P Deslys

“Inactivation of Bacteria and Biomolecules by Low-Pressure Plasma Discharges”

Plasma Processes and Polymers 7 (3-4), 327-352, 2010, DOI: 10.1002/ppap.200900121


H Rauscher, K Stapelmann, O Kylián, B Denis, F Rossi

“Monitoring plasma etching of biomolecules by imaging ellipsometry”

Vacuum 84 (1), 75-78, 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2009.05.012


K Stapelmann, O Kylián, B Denis, F Rossi

“On the application of inductively coupled plasma discharges sustained in Ar/O2/N2 ternary mixture for sterilization and decontamination of medical instruments”

Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 41 (19), 192005, 2008, DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/41/19/192005



Book chapter


O Kylián, H Rauscher, A Ruiz, B Denis, K Stapelmann, F Rossi,

“Elimination of pathogenic biological residuals by means of low-pressure inductively coupled plasma discharge”,

Industrial Plasma Technology: Applications from environmental to energy technologies, 193-199, Editors: Y Kawai, H Ikegami, N Sato, A Matsuda, K Uchino, M Kuzuya and A Mizuno,  Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010, DOI: 10.1002/9783527629749.ch15